The Impact of Indulgence and Restrain cultural dimension on Brand equity


  • Syeda Quratulain Kazmi
  • Dr. Mustaghis Ur Rahman


Indulgence, Restraint cultural dimension, brand equity, brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image, and perceive quality.


Developing brand equity is becoming the most essential phenomena in contemporary brand management and marketing field, particularly in a culturally diversified society. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are widely known for identifying and explaining consumer behavior and cultural characteristics in various domains among which understanding customer’s cultural orientations with respect to their buying decisions is one of them. Indulgence Vs. Restrained cultural dimension is less explored and researched dimension specifically in Pakistani business market.
This research paper aims to find the impact of indulgent and restrain culture dimension on brand equity with the mediation of brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand image and perceived quality to find the impact of this dimension on brand equity and indirectly on consumer’s decision making. As indulgence vs. restraint cultural dimension is less researched and explored areas, especially, in Pakistan. As consumers’ buying decisions finally turn into brand equity, this research would contribute to the existing literature on determining brand equity with respect to cultural factor and its dimensions especially indulgence vs restrain cultural dimension.
This research is explanatory in nature and based on Hofstede culture dimension framework and Aaker model of brand equity. A sample size of 384 male and female customers aged between 16 to 55 years of different Pakistani apparel brands were approached at the time when they were actually shopping branded apparel. Data has been collected in Karachi from four different shopping malls located in prime locations in Karachi by using Mall Intercept technique.