GMJACS https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs <p>The Global Management Journal for Academic &amp; Corporate Studies (GMJACS) is a Refereed International biannual Journal having an Advisory Panel from the world’s leading Universities and Business Schools. The Journal welcomes articles in all areas of Management and Business. Both theoretical and applied manuscripts are considered for the Journal. The Journal employs double-blind and peer-reviewed processes. The primary goal of GMJACS is to provide opportunities for Academicians and Corporate leaders from various business-related fields in a global realm to publish their papers in one source. GMJACS accepts researched articles, case studies, and discussions for publication.</p> <p>To bring quality to the published work in GMJACS, we have established an internationally renowned large Advisory/Review board, comprising reputed scholars and well-qualified subject specialists.</p> <p>In order to ensure research dissemination, we are besides a print version of the journal also maintaining an electronic archive of the published articles available in the downloadable form, since 2015.</p> en-US aamirshamsi.bukc@bahria.edu.pk (Dr. Aamir Firoz Shamsi) chiefeditorgmjacs.bukc@bahria.edu.pk (Editor in Chief) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 02:23:11 -0600 OJS 3.2.1.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Psychological Underpinning of Emotional Labor in Customer Service Jobs- A Systematic Literature Review https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/216 <p>The paper is designed for an in-depth understanding of the psychological consequences of emotional labor that are particularly relevant to the call center industry wherein the idea of customer satisfaction via scripted emotional responses is a critical success factor. It is a systematic literature review that is following an investigator triangulation method of qualitative research. The paper has developed an initial theoretical framework which is than by the help of investigator triangulation validated into final theoretical framework<strong>. </strong>The paper proposes that by the use of effective employee emotional facilitation centers the psychological consequences of emotional labor can be mitigated to a great extent, given the dynamic customer centric environments and a competition to thrive is in customer services. Contemporary organizations might not be in a position to compromise the customer services by an inch, managing the employees effectively anyhow remains a crucial yet an unaddressed issue, the paper is an attempt to offer psychological facilitation to the employees to combat the negative consequences of emotional labor and it thereby offers a &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;valuable construct for organizations. The paper is a novel attempt to facilitate the researchers as well as the professional in the field of study and operations to deploy a supportive theoretical framework. The developed framework backed by 4 propositions are original &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Tosiq Hammiat Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/216 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Factors Influencing Consumer Adoption of Smartphones: Evidence from Rural Areas of Pakistan https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/217 <p>The global COVID-19 pandemic disrupted education and restricted travel for many people, escalating the use of smartphones as educational tools. This paper analyses the factors influencing consumer adoption of smartphones from the perspective of college and university-going students belonging to rural areas of Pakistan. The paper aims to assess the impact of perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, social influence and personal characteristics on the consumer adoption of smartphones, particularly during and after the unprecedented times of the COVID-19 pandemic. This quantitative study uses questionnaires to obtain insights from 398 college and university-going students who regularly travel from rural areas of Pakistan to acquire education in cities. The study uses IBM-SPSS Statistics software to investigate the relationship of perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, social influence and personal characteristics with the consumer adoption of smartphones. The findings of this study can assist marketers in dedicating marketing efforts in line with the factors that shape young people’s perception towards adoption of smartphones in rural areas.</p> Ayesha Mahmood; Tatheer Yawar Ali, Bushra Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/217 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Role of Influencers in Digital Marketing: The moderating impact of follower’s interaction https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/218 <p>Extensive research conducted notes that no researchers holistically consider these problems. This research focus on the role of influencers in digital marketing, and the framework consist of a (Hwang, 2018) model with a UGT (User and Gratification Theory), and some variables are influenced by the Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friestad, Wright, 1994). Additionally, researchers have done their research on one YouTube video for a particular brand, so there is a need to research a public domain in which the focus is on all platforms of social media so that the result can be holistic. Further, researchers have conducted their research on generation Y, so there is also a need to conduct this research holistically. The paper used the SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) technique to analyze the data we have collected. The present research is based on a broad framework; this is why the paper has used PLS (Partial Least Square) to evaluate the hypothetical model. The findings reveal that social media users' para-social relationship with the social media influencers has a positive and significant relationship with EWOM by social media users and a negative and not significant relationship with the purchase intention of the social media users. Thus, it shows that para-social relationships increase EWOM, not purchase intention. Moreover, social media users' para-social relationship also depicts a positive and significant relationship between influencers' credibility and EWOM. Moving further, results reveal that para-social relationships with (Parasocial Relationship -&gt; Influencer Credibility -&gt; Brand Trust) and (Influencer Credibility -&gt; Brand Trust -&gt; Purchase Intention) have a partial mediation relationship. Lastly, moderation analysis indicates that there is a two positive (MOD (PR with IC)_ -&gt; Influencer Credibility), (MOD (IC with Willingness)_ -&gt; Willingness to search) and 1 (MOD (IC with PK)_ -&gt; Product Knowledge) moderation relationship. The findings serve as essential evidence for social media influencers that their credibility impacts the purchase intention of the social media user as well as their excellent para-social relationship with the social media users will highly impact their EWOM. This study indicates that the para-social relationship of social media users with the social media influencers enhances the consumers' purchase intention and increases the EWOM (electronic word of mouth) between the social media users.</p> Sherbaz Khan; Dr. Imran Zaman, Dr. M.Irfan Khan, Zainab Musleha Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/218 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Impact of budget announcement on stock returns: An Event Study in Pharmaceutical and Automobile sector https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/219 <p>This study explains the budget announcement impact on automobile and pharmaceutical sectors stock returns. We have observed whether there is any significant effect of budget announcement events in stock returns during the window period or not. It is a quantitative study and event-study methodology is adopted. The event window consists of 15 days, including seven pre-event days, one event day and seven post-event days, while the estimation window consists of 230 pre-event window days. As per knowledge of researcher, no study in Pakistan has specifically studied the budget announcement event impact on stock returns of automobile and pharmaceutical sectors by using event study methodology. This study will be beneficial for market participants of pharmaceutical and automobile sectors because of its consideration to dynamics in stock market after the budget event announcement. The findings of current study revealed that Pakistan’s stock market is found to be semi strong efficient. Volatility in returns was observed but no significant impact was found in the automobile sector while in pharmaceutical sector, significant impact was observed for two years. Results indicate that there is very low chance to earn abnormal returns as all the information related to the budget immediately absorbed by market forces.</p> Sadia Shafiq; Saiqa Saddiqa Qureshi Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/219 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Why Employees are not loyal to their Workplace in Private Sector? https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/220 <p>Employee turnover is a significant factor that is of vital importance to the employees of the organization. The prerequisite to leave one’s job or organization is the intention to leave that can be referred as turnover intention. It is the thinking and planning of employees to leave their job and organization due to different reasons. Since turnover intention is not explicit; it is difficult to determine the factors, these lead to leave one’s job and organization. So, this conceptual paper tried to summarize different factors affecting turnover intention of employees which are identified by different scholars and researchers. The population of research is the private sector of Pakistan because this issue of turnover and organization performance is of major concern in private companies. The size of the sample of 251 respondent was selected. The main objective of this research is to study the relationship between (Abusive Supervision, Emotional Exhaustion, Organizational Politics, Psychological Contract Breach, Perceived organization support, Remuneration, Workplace Bullying, Work life imbalance) and mediating effect of turnover on organizational performance. for this research we have used PLS path modeling approach keeping in view the above literature review. For analyzing the data, we have used Smart PLS 3.0. After the results revealed all the hypothesis were accepted except workplace bullying, perceived organization support and work life imbalance. This research will help Organization that organizations have to work on the environment conditions with the support of developing career and value towards the promotional opportunities for employees that give them motivation to retain in organization.</p> Poona Bai; Sughand Suresh, Dr. Junaid Ansari, Dr. Shiraz Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/220 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Controlling Bankruptcy: An Early Warning Signal Model https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/221 <p>The continued development to best fit the model in prediction of bankruptcy has been of substantial interest over the decades. In accounting models of bankruptcy predictions usually single model appears to be a generalized one for each industry, even when industries are structurally different in terms of their financial, operational, and investing needs. This study investigates the causes of financial failure of textile companies (Around 100 companies) delisted from PSX during 2002-2017. A firm is financially distressed due to improper working capital management which led the firm to go bankrupt in the long run. We used 2 sets of data; estimation sample 2002-2012 &amp; cross validation sample 2014-2017 and examined 20 ratios from Liquidity, profitability, Leverage and efficiency, for a five-year period preceding liquidation .Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA) approach followed by Logit regression were used. Four ratios; working capital to total assets,&nbsp; acid test, sales to total assets, and sales growth as proxy of working capital, were identified as significant predictors. The resultant model has early forewarning signals for potential bankruptcy that can occur which could not be generalized one for each industry.</p> Bushra Karim Mirza; Farooq Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/221 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 How Action Learning Supports Leadership Development and Organizational Management? Its Application with Case Studies https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/222 <p>Organizations throughout the globe are grappling with the rising problem of strengthening the skills of their leaders with less time and money. Most leadership development (LD) programmes, on the other hand, are ineffective and costly, with little emphasis on the social, interpersonal and strategic dimensions of leadership. Therefore, the objectives of current study were to explore the qualities and skills of leaders essential for the 21<sup>st</sup> century competency, how action learning (AL) supports the organizational management (OM) and LD and the case studies from different organizations to provide the evidences that how action learning improves the organizational management. For this purpose, a total of 28 previous published articles were selected after following the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The literature showed that AL provided &nbsp;a great supports towards the development of leadership skills and (OM). This study will provide a meaningful direction towards the application of AL in LD and OM. &nbsp;</p> Muhammad Hafeez; Zahid Zulfiqar, Sajad Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/222 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 POST-COVID-19 VOLATILITY OF EXCHANGE RATE RETURNS A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/223 <p>The purpose of the study is to forecast the volatility for returns of the exchange rate of Pakistan concerning US dollars along with the impact of covid-19 so that we can find out the feasibility of holding this asset along with the risk and returns associated with it. For this purpose daily data has been taken from the State bank of Pakistan on a period from February 01, 2001, to June 30, 2021, where covid-19 is used as a dummy variable. Furthermore, in methodology, we applied GARCH models after finding the presence of the ARCH effect which is at ARCH (6) in the series. It is found in all GARCH models that the past volatility of the exchange rate returns has a statistically significant influence on the current volatility of the exchange rate means there is time-varying and time-correlated volatility associated with exchange rate returns. According to GARCH-M, GARCH-M (variance) (1,1) and GARCH-M (SD) (1,1) results it is concluded that average returns of exchange rate are small but significant and there is no risk factor associated with exchange rate returns but the past square residual terms have a significant impact on risk volatility. Furthermore, Both T-GARCH and E- GARCH depicts that the impact of covid-19, which is bad news, although has a significant impact but its magnitude has a lesser influence on exchange rate volatility than the good news.</p> Anum Hayat; Marium Mazhar, Urooj Aijaz, Dr. Saghir Pervaiz Ghauri, Kishwer Sultana Lodhi, Urooj Aijaz Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/223 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600 How Social Gratification affects Social Network Gaming Habitual Behavior. Sequential Mediation of Flow Experience and Consumer Satisfaction https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/224 <p>The present research has explored the role of social interaction and social presence, two components of social gratification, in shaping up social network gaming habitual behavior. The study has analyzed sequential mediation of flow experience and consumer satisfaction in between the association social gratification facets and social network gaming habitual behavior. 500 responses were collected from social gaming consumers of Pakistan using convenience sampling technique. 471 responses were found to be appropriate for data analysis. SPSS 25.0 was used for descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and correlation analysis while PROCESS SPSS Macro was used for examining the mediation effects. The proposed research model was also analyzed and validated using structural equation modelling through AMOS 22. Results of the study revealed that flow experience and consumer satisfaction play significant role as sequential mediators between social gratification facets and social network gaming habitual behavior. Consumer satisfaction was observed to play the most effective role among all determinants considered in the present research. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations and future research directions have been discussed as well.</p> Kashif Abrar; Dr Asif Khurshid Mian, Sobia Zaman, Kashif Abrar Copyright (c) 2022 https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/ https://gmjacs.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/224 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 -0600